Biology and Brewing

by chris@4webinc.com (Chris Colby)

I love biology. One of my undergraduate majors was biology and I have a PhD in biology. If you really understand the subject, it gives you a perspective on life different from most people’s. For example, most biology majors end up taking either a parasitology or an epidemiology course for their undergrad degree. And slowly, as the semester progresses, you are transformed from a happy, well-adjusted human into a Howard Hughes-like recluse, afraid that all your food is teeming with worms and every door handle is a germ-smeared death sentence. (Ah, the memories!) 

But eventually you get over it, rediscover sushi and get on your life. And if your life includes brewing, you have some absorbed some information that can help you become a better brewer. I believe one of the biggest benefits of having a biology background is a simple thing — understanding how small bacteria are. 

Bacteria are small. Most are just a couple microns across. Brewers yeast cells, which are also small enough to be microscopic, are about 10 times larger than all the standard wort-spoiling or beer-spoiling bacteria. With 40X magnification, you can see yeast cells fairly well with a light microscope. (If the cells are not stained, turn the back lighting way down.) With 100X magnification (the next highest power on most light microscopes), most (stained) bacteria look only slightly bigger than a dot. 

Now, just for some scale, let’s compare this to a speck of dust. We’ve all been in a room with a ray of sunshine coming in from a window and we’ve all seen specks of dust floating in the air. The size of dust particles depends on what the dust is made of, but if they are big enough to be visible, but small enough to stay aloft in a mostly still room, they are probably between 50 and a 100 microns — i.e. 10 to 20 times larger than bacteria. 

There are many ways that bacteria can come in contact with wort or beer. Bacteria can come from unsanitized surfaces. They can also be introduced with the pitching yeast. Most major problems with contaminated beer probably come from these two sources. But one thing you can be sure of, your wort is going to be contaminated with airborne bacteria. 

I’m not saying this to be defeatist. Everyone’s beer -- homemade or commercial -- has some degree of airborne contamination. 

So what to do about it as a homebrewer? Well, just as you’ll eventually get back to eating sushi after taking a parasitology course, you’ll get over worrying about the fact that your wort is inevitably contaminated and begin to take steps to keep the level manageable. I would suggest a couple things. During your brewday (and especially when wort or beer may be exposed to the air), assume that you are walking around in a mist of bacteria. (You are, even in environments that are very clean by ordinary standards.) Based on this, take these four precautions:

If your wort is exposed to air, you should cover it with a sanitary cover. (For example, if I’m bottling, I’ll cover the top of the bottling bucket with sanitized aluminum foil.) You should minimize the amount of time your wort (or beer) is exposed to the air. (Don’t rush, but don’t let it sit exposed for longer than necessary.) Clean your environment of things that may harbor bacteria or wild yeast (esp. food). And finally, pitch a lot of yeast. A small amount of contamination (of the size that is inevitable from airborne sources) is easily undone by getting a quick start to your fermentation. With a good pitch, the bacteria should be vastly outnumbered and will quickly perish (or go dormant) from the rising alcohol levels and falling pH. 

Now, did you know that Taenia solium, a cestode (tapeworm) that parasitizes pigs can get in your brain and eat it? It can. Enjoy your next pork chop. 

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Nous le publierons sous peu, suite à notre processus de modération.", "success": "Votre commentaire a été publié avec succès!", "comments_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] commentaire", "other": "[[ count ]] commentaires" } } }, "cart": { "general": { "title": "Panier", "note": "Ajouter une note à votre commande", "remove": "Retirer", "subtotal": "Sous-total", "savings": "Vous économisez", "shipping_at_checkout": "Frais de port et remises calculés à la caisse", "update": "Mettre à jour", "checkout": "Procéder au paiement", "empty": "Votre panier est vide.", "cookies_required": "Activer les cookies pour utiliser le panier", "cancel": "Annuler", "edit": "Éditer", "continue_shopping": "Continuer vos achats", "view_and_edit_cart": "Afficher et modifier le panier", "processing": "En traitement...", "items_count_label" : "[[ count ]] article(s) dans votre panier", "ok" : "D'accord", "empty_page_title": "Le panier d'achat est vide", "empty_continue_html": "Cliquer ici pour poursuivre vos achats.", "clear": "Vider le panier", "recently_added_item": "Article (s) récemment ajouté (s)", "remove_item": "Enlever cet article", "here": "ici" }, "label": { "product": "Produit", "price": "Prix", "quantity": "Quantité", "total": "Total", "total_item": "Total de l'élément", "sub_total_top": "Sous-total du panier" } }, "collections": { "general": { "view_all": "Voir toutes", "clear_all": "Tout Supprimer", "no_matches": "Aucun produit ne correspond à votre recherche.", "items_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] item", "other": "[[ count ]] items" }, "load_more": "Charger plus", "sidebar_btn": "Filtrer par" }, "sorting": { "title": "Trier par", "manual": "En vedette", "best_selling": "Meilleurs vendeurs", "title_ascending": "A-Z", "title_descending": "Z-A", "price_ascending": "Prix: faible à élevé", "price_descending": "Prix: élevé à faible", "created_descending": "Date: récent à ancien", "created_ascending": "Date: ancien à récent" }, "filters": { "title_tags": "Filtrer", "all_tags": "Tous les produits", "categories": "Les catégories", "title": "Filtre", "color": "Couleur", "size": "Taille", "brand": "Marque", "price": "Prix", "green": "Vert", "blue": "Bleu", "red": "Rouge", "pink": "Rose", "black": "Noir", "purple": "Violet", "white": "Blanc", "orange": "Orange" }, "product_item": { "quick_shop": "Aperçu rapide", "compare": "Comparer", "wishlist": "Ajouter à la liste de souhaits" } }, "contact": { "form": { "name": "Nom", "email": "Courriel", "phone": "Téléphone", "message": "Message", "submit": "Envoyer", "post_success": "Merci de nous avoir avoir contacté. Nous vous reviendrons le plus rapidement possible.", "address": "Adresse", "telephone": "Téléphone", "title": "Écrivez-nous", "required": "Requis" } }, "customer": { "account": { "title": "Mon compte", "details": "Détails du compte", "view_addresses": "Voir les adresses", "return": "Retour aux détails du compte" }, "activate_account": { "title": "Activer le compte", "subtext": "Créez votre mot de passe pour activer le compte.", "submit": "Activer le compte", "cancel": "Refuser l'invitation", "password": "Mot de passe", "password_confirm": "Confirmer le mot de passe" }, "addresses": { "title": "Votre adresse", "default": "Par défaut", "add_new": "Ajouter une nouvelle adresse", "edit_address": "Éditer l'adresse", "first_name": "Prénom", "last_name": "Nom", "company": "Compagnie", "address1": "Adresse 1", "address2": "Adresse 2", "city": "Ville", "country": "Pays", "province": "Province", "zip": "Code postal", "phone": "Téléphone", "set_default": "Définir comme adresse par défaut", "add": "Ajouter l'adresse", "update": "Mettre à jour l'adresse", "cancel": "Annuler", "edit": "Éditer", "delete": "Supprimer", "delete_confirm": "Êtes-vous certain(e) de vouloir supprimer cette adresse?" }, "login": { "title": "Connexion", "desc": "Si vous avez un compte, connectez-vous avec votre adresse e-mail.", "email": "Courriel", "password": "Mot de passe", "forgot_password": "Mot de passe oublié?", "sign_in": "Se connecter", "guest_title": "Continuer en tant qu'invité", "guest_continue": "Continuer" }, "orders": { "title": "Historique des commandes", "order_number": "Commande", "date": "Date", "payment_status": "Statut du paiement", "fulfillment_status": "Statut du traitement de la commande", "total": "Total", "none": "Vous n'avez pas placé de commande à ce jour." }, "order": { "title": "Commande [[ name ]]", "date": "Placée le [[ date ]]", "cancelled": "Commande annulée le [[ date ]]", "cancelled_reason": "Motif: [[ reason ]]", "billing_address": "Adresse de facturation", "payment_status": "Statut du paiement", "shipping_address": "Adresse de livraison", "fulfillment_status": "Statut du traitement de la commande", "discount": "Rabais appliqué", "shipping": "Livraison", "tax": "Taxes", "product": "Produit", "sku": "SKU", "price": "Prix", "quantity": "Quantité", "total": "Total", "fulfilled_at": "Traitée le [[ date ]]", "subtotal": "Sous-total" }, "recover_password": { "title": "Réinitialiser votre mot de passe", "email": "Courriel", "submit": "Soumettre", "cancel": "Annuler", "subtext": "Nous vous ferons parvenir un courriel pour réinitialiser votre mot de passe.", "success": "Nous vous avons fait parvenir un courriel pour réinitialiser votre mot de passe." }, "reset_password": { "title": "Réinitialiser le mot de passe du compte", "subtext": "Entrez un nouveau mot de passe pour [[ email ]]", "submit": "Réinitialiser le mot de passe", "password": "Mot de passe", "password_confirm": "Confirmer le mot de passe" }, "register": { "title": "Créer un compte", "first_name": "Prénom", "last_name": "Nom", "email": "Courriel", "submit": "Créer", "password": "Mot de passe", "desc": "La création d'un compte est simple. Remplissez le formulaire ci-dessous." } }, "homepage": { "onboarding": { "product_title": "Le nom de votre produit", "product_description": "Cette partie est utilisée pour la fiche du produit. Parlez aux clients de l'allure, du ressenti et du style de votre produit. Ajoutez des détails sur la couleur, les matériaux utilisés, le dimensionnement, et où il a été fabriqué.", "collection_title": "Le nom de votre collection", "blog_title": "Le titre de votre publication", "blog_excerpt": "Votre magasin n'a encore rien bloggué. Un blog peut être utilisé pour parler des lancements de nouveaux produits, d'astuces, ou d'autres nouvelles que vous voulez partager avec vos clients. Vous pouvez regarder le blog d'e-commerce de Shopify pour trouver de l'inspiration et des conseils pour votre propre magasin et blog.", "blog_author": "Nom de l'auteur", "no_content": "Cette section ne contient actuellement aucun contenu. Ajoutez-en en utilisant la barre latérale." } }, "layout": { "navigation": { "search": "Recherche", "toggle": "développer\/réduire", "expand": "révéler", "collapse": "fermer", "all_categories": "toutes catégories" }, "cart": { "title": "Panier", "items_count": { "one": "item", "other": "items" } }, "customer": { "account": "Compte", "log_out": "Se déconnecter", "logout": "Se déconnecter", "log_in": "Se connecter", "create_account": "Créer un compte", "sign_up": "S'inscrire", "wishlist": "Liste de souhaits" }, "footer": { "social_platform": "[[ name ]] sur [[ platform ]]" }, "list_page": { "grid": "La grille", "list": "Liste" } }, "products": { "product": { "regular_price": "Prix régulier", "sold_out": "Épuisé", "unavailable": "Non disponible", "on_sale": "Solde", "quantity": "Quantité", "add_to_cart": "Ajouter au panier", "back_to_collection": "Retour à [[ title ]]", "related_title": "Produits connexes", "qty_increase": "Augmenter", "qty_decrease": "Diminution", "deal_days": "Journées", "deal_hours": "Heures", "deal_minutes": "Minutes", "deal_second": "Seconde", "select_option": "Sélectionner une option", "add_to_wishlist": "Ajouter à la liste de souhaits", "add_to_review": "Ajouter à la critique", "first_review": "Soyez le premier avis", "compare_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la boîte de comparaison réussie", "compare_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] existe dans la boîte de comparaison", "compare_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "compare_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a été supprimé de la boîte de comparaison", "comparing_box": "Boîte de comparaison", "compare_no_items": "Il n'y a aucun élément dans la boîte de comparaison", "wishlist_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "wishlist_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] existe dans la liste de souhaits", "wishlist_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté au panier", "wishlist_box": "Liste de souhaits", "wishlist_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a été retiré de la liste de souhaits", "wislist_no_items": "Il n'y a aucun élément dans la liste de souhaits", "upsell_cart_msg": "\"[[ product_title ]]\" a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "upsell_block_title": "Souvent acheté avec \"[[ product_title ]]\"", "upsell_cart_qty": "[[ count ]] article", "upsell_product_page_title": "Vous aimerez peut-être aussi ces produits", "upsell_checkout_btn": "Caisse", "share": "Partager le produit", "share_on_facebook": "Partager sur Facebook", "share_on_twitter": "Partager sur Twitter", "share_on_pinterest": "Partager sur Pinterest", "share_on_google": "Partager sur Google+", "share_on_linkedin": "Partager sur LinkedIn", "availability": "Disponibilité", "in_stock": "En stock", "out_of_stock": "En rupture de stock", "quick_overview": "Rapide vue d'ensemble", "details": "Détails", "reviews": "Avis", "tags": "Tags du produit", "options": "Les options", "vendor": "Vendeur", "features": "Les traits", "size_chart": "Tableau des tailles", "sale_left_text":"[[ sales ]] VENDU. SE DÉPÊCHER! SEULEMENT QUELQUES GAUCHE!", "checkout_text": "Paiement sécurisé et approuvé avec", "quick_view_details": "Voir les détails", "open_light_gallery": "Cliquez ici pour ouvrir les images de la galerie" }, "upsell": { "recommend_text": "Quelqu'un a acheté un", "minute_ago": "il y a quelques minutes" } }, "gift_cards": { "issued": { "title_html": "Votre carte-cadeau [[ shop ]] d'une valeur de [[ value ]]!", "subtext": "Voici votre carte-cadeau!", "disabled": "Désactivée", "expired": "Expirée le [[ expiry ]]", "active": "Expire le [[ expiry ]]", "redeem_html": "Entrez ce code lors du paiement pour utiliser votre [[ value ]] carte-cadeau", "shop_link": "Boutique", "print": "Imprimer ce bon d'achat", "remaining_html": "[[ balance ]] restant", "add_to_apple_wallet": "Ajouter à Apple Wallet" } }, "date_formats": { "month_day_year": "%d %B, %Y" } } } Get Discount